The Foundations of America
Solving the two age old dilemmas of self government
1) Set up the government and laws to govern a free society, and
1) Laws to govern a free society
The Constitution was designed to deal with the failings of the human condition. The Founders had many fears of the excesses of human nature, notably the desire to control and accumulate ever increasing power. The Founders were well aware of the historical record on freedom. This is why the voting class was limited at first and then gradually expanded. This is why they put so many checks and balances into the system.
The Constitution established 3 separate branches of government, the Executive, Legislative and Judicial. Each branch of government was to be a counterbalance against the other two and keep one branch of the government from becoming too powerful. The Legislative and Executive are subject to the will of the people through elections. The Judiciary would not be subject to elections. This was done in the hope that they would interpret the Constitution impartially and be free from political pressure. The House of Representative would be based on population, while the Senate would have 2 Senators from each state regardless of population. The system was designed to bring about change slowly. The Founders wanted change to be based on reasoned thought.
The Founders strongly believed that government should be ruled by laws and not by men. They firmly believed that the republican form of government would prove more stable in the long run. A democracy is essentially mob rule. While the Founders wanted majority rule, they did not want mob rule. Mob rule victimizes people holding an opposing viewpoint. With everyone holding different views on so many issues, the Founders wanted maximum individual freedom so we could all live our lives as we see fit. However, in areas where there needs to be established policy, the Founders wanted majority rule within the Constitutional framework. Agreeing to disagree is essential in a free society.
America was the first country where power went from the people up to the government. In other societies, the relationship between government and the people was usually adversarial - us versus them. In America, the government was the people.
2) Maintaining social order and morality in a free society.
While the Constitution dealt primarily with the actual structure of the new American republic, the best system in the world will only work as good as the collective goodwill of the people. The Founders knew that freedom is a double edged sword. It can be incredibly fulfilling or unbelievably destructive - individually and as a nation. A moral, law abiding society comes first, freedom comes as a result. FREEDOM AND MORALITY ARE CO-DEPENDENT AND INSEPARABLE. It is impossible to have a functional free society where a significant percentage of society is amoral. Freedom without morality produces anarchy.
On what ideals would the citizens determine right and wrong? The Founders strongly believed that the moral code, self discipline and work ethic of the Christian Faith was absolutely vital for the Republic to endure and should be promoted by the government. The Founders wanted Christian beliefs to be the basis for law and morality in America. Yet they opposed establishing a theocracy or an official government sponsored religion like most other countries around the world. The Founding Fathers knew that it was not only counterproductive, but dangerous to establish a state religion.
So the Founders put the burden of maintaining a civil society on the people. They believed that since the average person would have the most to lose if morals and social order broke down, it would be in the peoples self interest to maintain a moral and orderly society.
Instead of the government forcing its beliefs onto society, the people would determine their own values and impose them onto themselves through their elected representatives. They were confident that Christianity would endure throughout society on its own merits as the true religion of God and the superiority of its social values. Even people who were not Christian would feel comfortable living under the stability of Christian social values and its most important doctrine - do unto others as you would have them do unto you. It was universally accepted that laws could be passed based solely on morality and the need to maintain a stable, safe society.
The reason the American experiment in freedom succeeded while so many others failed was because the morals and ethics of Christianity was predominant in colonial society. Free societies lose their freedoms when they lose their ethics and morals. Then more and more laws must be passed to keep society functioning. The State becomes increasingly powerful in a nation of increasing lawlessness.